Spheresomes are the main extracellular vesicles in low-grade gliomas
Cancer progression and its impact on treatment response and prognosis is deeply regulated by tumour microenvironment (TME). Cancer cells are in constant communication and modulate TME through several mechanisms, including transfer of tumour-promoting cargos through extracellular vesicles (EVs) or oncogenic signal detection by primary cilia. Spheresomes are a specific EV that arise from rough endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi vesicles. They accumulate beneath cell membrane and are released to the extracellular medium through multivesicular spheres. This study describes spheresomes in low-grade gliomas using electron microscopy. We found that spheresomes are more frequent than exosomes in these tumours and can cross the blood–brain barrier. Moreover, the distinct biogenesis processes of these EVs result in unique cargo profiles, suggesting different functional roles. We also identified primary cilia in these tumours. These findings collectively contribute to our understanding of glioma progression and metastasis.