Diagnosis of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma by Immuno-Positron Emission Tomography.

Diagnosis of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma by Immuno-Positron Emission Tomography. González-Gómez R, Pazo-Cid RA, Sarría L, Morcillo MÁ, Schuhmacher AJ. J Clin Med. 2021 Mar 10;10(6):1151. doi: 10.3390/jcm10061151. PMID: 33801810

Diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) by current imaging techniques is useful and widely used in the clinic but presents several limitations and challenges, especially in small lesions that frequently cause radiological tumors infra-staging, false-positive diagnosis of metastatic tumor recurrence, and common occult micro-metastatic disease. The revolution in cancer multi-"omics" and bioinformatics has uncovered clinically relevant alterations in PDAC that still need to be integrated into patients' clinical management, urging the development of non-invasive imaging techniques against principal biomarkers to assess and incorporate this information into the clinical practice. "Immuno-PET" merges the high target selectivity and specificity of antibodies and engineered fragments toward a given tumor cell surface marker with the high spatial resolution, sensitivity, and quantitative capabilities of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging techniques. In this review, we detail and provide examples of the clinical limitations of current imaging techniques for diagnosing PDAC. Furthermore, we define the different components of immuno-PET and summarize the existing applications of this technique in PDAC. The development of novel immuno-PET methods will make it possible to conduct the non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of patients over time using in vivo, integrated, quantifiable, 3D, whole body immunohistochemistry working like a "virtual biopsy"