Carbon-based Electrode Engineering Boosts the Efficiency of All Low-temperature Processed Perovskite Solar Cells

ACS Energy Letters 2019, 4, 2032-2039. S. He, L. Qiu, D.-Y. Son, Z. Liu, E. J. Juarez-Perez, L. K. Ono, C. Stecker, Y. Qi,

Carbon electrode-based perovskite solar cells (PSCs)
with low-cost and long-term stability have been recognized as a
competitive candidate toward future practical applications. However,
energy level mismatch and ineffective hole extraction at the carbon
electrode/perovskite interface limit device performance. Herein, we
develop a low-cost carbon-based electrode that utilizes a cheap
small-molecule semiconductor copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) as
both the interface modifier and dopant. The resultant planar PSC
yields a power conversion efficiency of 14.8%, ∼30% higher than that
based on the bare carbon electrode. This is due to higher work
function and better hole extraction properties of the CuPc-modified
carbon electrodes. The simple modification process of the carbon
electrode has potential applications for large-scale fabrication. We
further applied such electrodes in large-area solar modules and
flexible solar cells, demonstrating their capability of upscaling and flexibility.

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