Exploring sustainable scenarios for the electricity sector: An analysis using disaggregated supply and use tables for Spain
The sustainability of the environment implies the dire need of the redesign of electricity systems as part of the decarbonization processes of the economies. The increasing of the use of renewable energies lets a most sustainable way to generate electricity. In this paper, we analyze the economic and environmental effects of different green scenarios of change for electricity by promoting alternative forms of renewable energy sources. In particular, we evaluate a higher implementation of self-production electricity as a sustaining way to enhance the supply of electricity and reduce the electricity losses due to transmission and distribution processes. Alternative sustainable energy sources are explored to generate electricity self-production from solar, biomass, wind and hydropower systems. We also assess the effects of a higher electricity self-consumption in households. These scenarios are implemented through changes in the supply and use tables in an input-output framework where electricity sectors have been disaggregated. The analysis is particularized to the case study of Spain on account of its great potential in green technologies and its high energy dependence. Our results show an electricity production reallocation with reductions in non-renewable electricity industries combined with small increases in production in non-electricity industries that let achieve falls in total emissions in the economy.