A review on CO2 mitigation in the Iron and Steel industry through Power to X processes
In this paper we present the first systematic review of Power to X processes applied to the iron and steel industry. These processes convert renewable electricity into valuable chemicals through an electrolysis stage that produces the final product or a necessary intermediate. We have classified them in five categories (Power to Iron, Power to Hydrogen, Power to Syngas, Power to Methane and Power to Methanol) to compare the results of the different studies published so far, gathering specific energy consumption, electrolysis power capacity, CO2 emissions, and technology readiness level. We also present, for the first time, novel concepts that integrate oxy-fuel ironmaking and Power to Gas. Lastly, we round the review off with a summary of the most important research projects on the topic, including relevant data on the largest pilot facilities (2–6 MW).