Selective Coimmobilization of His-Tagged Enzymes on Yttrium-Stabilized Zirconia-Based Membranes for Continuous Asymmetric Bioreductions
Scalability, process control, and modularity are some of the advantages that make flow biocatalysis a key-enabling technology for green and sustainable chemistry. In this context, rigid porous solid membranes hold the promise to expand the toolbox of flow biocatalysis due to their chemical stability and inertness. Yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) fulfills these properties; however, it has been scarcely exploited as a carrier for enzymes. Here, we discovered an unprecedented interaction between YSZ materials and His-tagged enzymes that enables the fabrication of multifunctional biocatalytic membranes for bioredox cascades. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests that enzyme immobilization is driven by coordination interactions between the imidazole groups of His-tags and both Zr and Y atoms. As model enzymes, we coimmobilized in-flow a thermophilic hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (TtHBDH-His) and a formate dehydrogenase (His-CbFDH) for the continuous asymmetric reduction of ethyl acetoacetate with in situ redox cofactor recycling. Fluorescence confocal microscopy deciphered the spatial organization of the two coimmobilized enzymes, pointing out the importance of the coimmobilization sequence. Finally, the coimmobilized system succeeded insitu, recycling the redox cofactor, maintaining the specific productivity using only 0.05 mM NADH, and accumulating a total enzyme turnover number of 4000 in 24 h. This work presents YSZ materials as ready-to-use carriers for the site-directed enzyme in-flow immobilization and the application of the resulting heterogeneous biocatalysts for continuous biomanufacturing.