Sleep duration and subclinical atherosclerosis: The Aragon Workers' Health Study
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few studies have evaluated the association of sleep duration with subclinical atherosclerosis, and with heterogeneous findings. We evaluated the association of sleep duration with the presence of coronary, carotid, and femoral subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy middle-age men with low prevalence of clinical comorbidities.
METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1968 men, 40-60 years of age, participating in the Aragon Workers' Health Study (AWHS). Duration of sleep during a typical work week was assessed by questionnaire. Coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) was assessed by computed tomography and the presence of carotid plaque and femoral plaque by ultrasound.
RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, the odds ratios (95% CI) for CACS >0 comparing sleep durations of ≤5, 6, and ≥8 h with 7 h were 1.34 (0.98-1.85), 1.35 (1.08-1.69) and 1.21 (0.90-1.62), respectively (p = 0.04). A similar U-shaped association was observed for CACS ≥100 and for CACS. The corresponding odds ratios for the presence of at least one carotid plaque were ≤5, 6, and ≥8 h with 7 h were 1.23 (0.88-1.72), 1.09 (0.86-1.38), and 0.86 (0.63-1.17), respectively (p = 0.31), and for the presence of at least one femoral plaque were 1.25 (0.87-1.80), 1.19 (0.93-1.51) and 1.17 (0.86-1.61), respectively (p = 0.39).
CONCLUSIONS: Middle-aged men reporting 7 h of sleep duration had the lowest prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis as assessed by CACs. Our results support that men with very short or very long sleep durations are at increased risk of atherosclerosis.