Socioeconomic determinants of sarcopenic obesity and frail obesity in community-dwelling older adults: The Seniors-ENRICA Study.
Information on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) throughout life and sarcopenic obesity is scarce, whereas no study has been focused on the association between SES and frail obesity. This analysis estimated the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity and frail obesity, and their associations with SES in older adults. Data were collected in 2012 from 1,765 non-institutionalized individuals aged ≥65 participating in the Seniors-ENRICA study in Spain, by using standardized techniques and equipment. SES throughout life was evaluated with the father's occupation, participant's educational level, former own occupation, and current poor housing condition. Overall, 17.2% of participants had sarcopenic obesity, and 4.0% frail obesity. No association was found between SES and sarcopenic obesity. In contrast, the prevalence of frail obesity was higher in those with lower education, having worked in manual job, and currently having poor housing condition. Having ≥1 social disadvantages throughout life was associated with higher prevalence of frail obesity. The prevalence of this disorder increased by 1.49 (95% CI: 1.21-1.85) times for each social disadvantage added. The OR (95% CI) of frail obesity was 3.13 (1.71-5.7) for those having 3 or 4 vs. 0 or 1 social disadvantages, implying a more complex process beginning early in life.